Who’s in Charge, Anyway? [A Reflective Essay]


A number of weeks ago, during the “Power and the Powers” lecture, I was involved in a rather heated discussion on the concept of the sovereignty of God.  Many things were discussed but the two main points that kept recurring were the sovereignty of God and the responsibility of man.  Due to time restraints, the discussion ended more promptly than I would have wished, however, the reason why the conversation went on as long as it did is that the classmate with whom I was “discussing” was unable to hold these truths in dialectical tension.  Therefore, within this essay, I will seek do exactly this.  The reader must be warned, however, that this is no easy task and therefore, like all the great truths of Scripture, the reader is asked to understand this truth as an unfathomable mystery.


1. The Sovereignty of God

When discussing the sovereignty of God the Shorter Catechism says:

“The decrees of God are His eternal plan based on the purpose of His will, by which, for His own glory, He has foreordained everything that happens.”[1]


Immediately, the reader may be baulking at this whole idea and be filled with a plethora of tragic circumstances and situations, real or imagined, in which he/she is categorically unable to see the hand of God.  This innate response in many places a wedge between the goodness of God and the providential sovereignty of God, a wedge that is neither helpful nor biblical.  No!  If God is sovereign but not good then He is all-powerful but not merciful but if He is good but not sovereign then He is power-less but merciful.  The reader must never be forced into accepting either one of these positions and therefore must hold these truths in tension.

God is both good and sovereign so His relationship to good and evil must be one that is “asymmetrical.  Doctrinally this is known as compatibilism and in its most rudimentary terms means that God is the author of all that is good and, for our good and His glory, permits all that is evil.[2]  This does not mean that God does not hate evil, and that the Church, individually and corporately, must not work against all forms of evil but it does mean that we worship a God who is all-powerful, mericful and can use evil for redemptive ends even if He is not the author of that evil.  In short, this is the God of the Bible.

Scripture clearly teaches that God is in control of creation (Joshua 10:13), Satan (Job 1:9-12), demons (Matthew 8:28-32), salvation (Ephesians 1:4), empires (Daniel 2:29-45), healing (2 Kings 5:14), sickness (John 9:3), life and death (2 Kings 20:1-6).  This gives us confidence because the believer can rest assured that nothing can happen that has not first passed through the counsel of a loving God.  “Oh!” say my detractors, “if God exercises such control over all things then you must relegate man to an agent that is acted upon and so cannot be held responsible for either good or evil.”  While this abominable doctrine may be held by hyper-Calvinists I would be keen to distance myself from it and show that it must be wedded in paradoxical union to the doctrine of the responsibility of man if it is to be truly biblical.


2. The Responsibility of Man

Before I begin to look at this, I must state categorically that even though I believe and teach human responsibility, I do not believe or teach that man has free will.  A W Pink puts it aptly when he says:

“Concerning the nature and the power of fallen man’s will, the greatest confusion prevails today and the most erroneous views are held, even by many of God’s children.  The popular idea now prevailing, and which is taught from the great majority of pulpits, is that man has free will.”[3]

Man is bound by the flesh, the world and the devil and may exercise some freedom of will within the midst of his servitude but cannot ever be seen as free.  The believer, however, is bound to Christ and so is free in Him but still subject to His example, led by His spirit and ultimately can only act within the parameters of His will.  Nonetheless, this does not mean that man is not responsible.

This can clearly be seen throughout scripture.  There is Pharaoh whose heart was “hardened” sometimes by God and sometimes by himself, given over to judgment because of the part which he played.[4]  Then there is David who is tested by Satan, under the permission of God, because of his sin, being inflicted with judgment of the severest nature.[5]  Not to mention the man who played the chief role in betraying Jesus.  A man, who helped Christ fulfil his mission (Luke 9:21-22), was filled with demonic power, given ‘permission’ by Jesus (John 13:27) but was still held responsible (Mark 14:21).  My point is that if there was ever a person who might be able to feign responsibility it would have been this one and therefore we can only be left with one conclusion:  That is that man will be held responsible in this life and in the life to come.

Now again this must be balanced with the concept of corporate responsibility, the fall and the role of suffering in the life of the believer but nonetheless it is a fundamental truth that must be constantly reiterated.[6]  Without this truth, man is depreciated to nothing more than a pawn within a cosmic game of chess.



While there is no doubt that this topic has been inadequately dealt with, it is my hope that an understanding of the sovereignty of God will invoke an iron-like confidence in the believer, while the doctrine of human responsibility might endear a grace-based humility and passion for holiness.  For me personally it has invoked awe and wonder and has brought about a desire for a life-long understanding of these truths and their practical application for my life and for the purpose of mission.  Something that I will reflect on for the rest of my earthly life.



Carson D A, 2006, How Long, O Lord? Reflections on Suffering and Evil Second Edition: IVP, Ebbw Vale

Kelly D & Rollinson P, 1986, The Westminster Shorter Catechism in Modern English: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, Phillipsburg

Pink A W, 1961, The Sovereignty of God: Banner of Truth Trust, Guildford


[1] Kelly & Rollinson, 1986, p.6 (Q7)

[2]“God stands behind good and evil in somewhat different ways; that is, he stands behind good and evil asymmetrically.  To put it bluntly, God stands behind evil in such a way that not even evil takes place outside the bounds of his sovereignty, yet evil is not morally chargeable to him: it is always chargeable to secondary agents, to secondary causes.  On the other hand, God stands behind good in such a way that it not only takes place within the bounds of his sovereignty, but it is always chargeable to him, and only derivatively to secondary agents.” Carson, 2006, p.189

[3] Pink, 1961, p.92

[4] Compare Exodus 7:13 & 8:15

[5] Compare 2 Samuel 24:1 with 1 Chronicles 21:1

[6] For more information on the role of suffering in the life of the believer please study the life of Job, Jesus and the Apostles.


Dealing with Depression – Book Review


This post originally appeared on kjsmcknight.wordpress.com on February the 21st 2013 :

This morning I finished reading ‘Dealing with Depression – Trusting God through the Dark Times‘ by Sarah Collins & Jayne Haynes (Christian Focus Publications) that I purchased at the Good Book Co Youth Work Conference.  The book was very eye opening and one that I would whole heatedly recommend to all Christians particularly full time gospel workers.

“Depression is a common complaint in the doctor’s surgery and 1 in 5 of the population that is 20% of people will have at least one major episode in their lifetime. We are reassured here that just like our physical health we can go through good and bad emotional health. But how does the Christian deal with this? It is so easy for us to be riddled with guilt but in this book the Christian is reassured that God knows and deals with us by grace, He helps us move from guilt to grace. Written from a Biblical and medical perspective.”

The book is split into 7 clear and helpful chapters as well as 3 Appendixes which are as follows:

  • 1. Depression – what is it?
  • 2. Why do people get depression?
  • 3. Medical treatments for depression and a Christian perspective on them
  • 4. Depression and the Christian
  • 5. Trusting God in the darkness – Help from the Psalmists
  • 6. Trusting God in the darkness – Using what God has provided
  • 7. Helping the depressed
  • Appendix 1: Struggles with Depression by Roger Carswell
  • Appendix 2: Coping with my wife’s depression – a husband’s perspective
  • Appendix 3: A Pastor’s experience of helping someone with depression

The book deals with the issue of depression through the lens of scripture and through the lens of up to date medical research and thought. It is important that we do not see depression as purely a spiritual problem or purely a medical issue. It is essential that help is sought from medical professionals and it is important to listen to their advice. However it is also important for those suffering from depression to not isolate themselves from the Body of Christ as fellowship is particularly important along with prayer and bible reading; even though at times it will be a great struggle indeed.  I appreciate how the book straddles the medical and spiritual as we have a tenancy to hold one above the other.

I found the 3 Appendixes particularly useful where 3 people from different vantage points share their experiences with depression, each giving useful practical advice.

Some of the most useful advice was:

Listen- Just being there is important. Don’t make the depressed person a project, just be there for them, always listening before speaking.

Prayer- Encouraging the depressed person to pray. It may be very difficult. But short, honest, angry prayers are ok. By not praying the ‘lines of communication’ are down, and the person will feel further from God.

Bible- Reading God’s word like prayer is very important, although a real struggle. Often people with depression find them self able to relate to some of the darker Psalms.

Before reading this book I knew very little at all about depression, after reading it I am just a little bit clearer about this very difficult and complex illness. So go and buy it, it’s not even a fiver!